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Full text of "Casio CZ-3000 Quick Start Guide"

SUMMARY SUM ARIO 

The quick approach to sound synthesis 

Una rapida aproximacion a la sintesis sonora A 






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This booklet explains Lhe operation of the Casio CZ- 

3000 from a different viewpoint lhan the Operation 

Manual, 

It was written with people in mind who want to play 

their new instrument right away, who are less 

interested in theory and more in practical tips for 

creating new sounds. 

For those who have no experience with synthesizers at 

all and are using one for the first time, the appendix 

"Synthesizer Sound Seminar" is recommended 

reading. 



■■ 






J 



Contents 



Part 1 First, Lei's Create Some Sounds!** ■ ■ -■■ 1 

Part 2 CZ-3000 Sound Syntheses * - 6 

Part 3 Tips for Sound Synthesis— Effective Techniques ■ 10 

Appendix "The Synthesizer Sound Seminar "---■ 18 



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ptfffi 




First, Let's Create Some Sounds! 



64 Sample Sounds 



The CZ-3000 contains a total of GA built-in sample sounds composed of 32 preset and 32 memory voices. 
Memory voice contents change when newly created sounds arc stored to memory. 
Use the following procedure to listen to the sample sounds. 



The CZ-3-000 synthesizer h nol equipped with speaker^ so a key hoard amplifier and speaker?, or ear- 
phone must be used to produce sound. 



(1) Press the power switch tn turn the 
instrument ON. 

Immediately after power H turned ON, the syn- 
thesiser will be in the NORMAL mode and BKA55 
ENS. I (A-1 in the Program me r SecFinn) will be 
selected automatically. Indicators will be lit above 
preset bank A and voice selector 1, while the 
LCD will appear as ■shown below. 



(2) Playing the 32 preset voices, 

Use the voice selectors (1-8) for the first eight 
timbres, and then press preset bank key B Tor the 
next eight timbres. Repeat this procedure for each 
preset bank key (A-D). The LCD will show the 
name of each timbre selected, so sample each 
timbre while confirming lis name on the LCD. 



(3) Playing the 32 memory voices. 

Use the voice selectors (1—8) for the first eighl 
timbres, and then press memory bank key B for the 
nest eight timbres. Repeat Lhls procedure for each 
memory bank key {A D). The LCD will show the 
name of each timbre selected, so sample each 
timbre while eon Firming its name on the LCD. 



I Preset biir^k keys 

PROGFLAMMI 



■ — Memory bqqt keys 



IER 



.', 






i-lndkiiLor 



PHE5ET 



] [ 



MEMORY 





-J£= 


™ 


™ 


— 


™ 


™ 


— 


™ 


-Indie 




1 


z 


■1 


■1 


E 


6 7 


■ 





*PRESET+ Fhi 
ESF1SS ENSul 



Voice 
wileclors 

(1-91 



-!■' 



Volte L 
so lee lor^ 



PRESET 



— Present b*nk ktys (A-D) 
^VJ^V- (D Select a preset bank 



o 



M- 



L 



1 



*PRESET# l' : '~t' 
CRLIMBR 



re 



Select a timbre 



ty. 



Menif.uy b.ink kev* (A Dj 
( ft So I ire t n. m tflrt OJ v li ■ ■ n k 



Voice wlettors {1—8) 




(g) Select i timbre 

* MEMORY* 
D--4 



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■ ®< 



{Tresel Vo ices and Me mory Voices V 



32 preset and 12 memory voices are preprogrammed fni.o t.hE CZ-3O0Q. Any one of these 64 timbres 
can be selected usin^ Lhe keys in the Programmer Section. 

The 32 timbre* programmed into the memory bank are those included in the |l DATA BOOK" Newly 
created ilmbres (by changing data using the Parameter Section} can be stored in memory crying the 
previous content?; and record ing the new data In ats piace. 




bkASStNSHMBLE 1 



STRING ENMr.VlIU I I 



fAZZ ORGAN' 



WHISTLE' 



TAT BASS 



VIBRArHONE 



SYNTH. URU MS 



I-U.'.VIAN VOICE 



Preset Voice Table 



* Indiidtcs 1&-note polyphonic f IDCOj. 
Otfiers Hire S-na-tis polyphenit [2DCOJ. 



SYNTIL BRASS 



^IklNn EKSE.MBLE? 



ELEC. PIANO 



FLUTE* 



SYNTH, BASS 



BRASS ENSEMBLE ? 



SYNTH, STRINGS 



ACCORDION 



TRUMPET 



VIOLIN* 



FANTASTIC ORGAN 



BLUES HARMONICA 



ELECGUITAR 



CRISPV XVtOPIIONE 



-, IM I IM.'i M 



FAIRYTALE 



SYNTH. GLOCKENSPIEL 



SYNtH. PERCUSSION 



CARTLLOIV 



DOUBLE REED 



METALLIC $OUND 
CA RIMBA 

CONGA 



1YPHOON SOOMO 




There are two methods for creating your own sounds with the CZ -300(1 You can either select a sample sound 
that is already dan to the kind of tone you would like and alter it to suit your t^te, or else combine the 
various tone elements to Synthesize a new sound right From the beginning. Here we wNI explain the first 
method ot altering a sample sound to make it easier to understand how sound synthesis with the CZ-3000 
actually works. 





No dttatled explanations will be provided for the va.ious numeric values that appear in the following 
extrnpjes. Simply change the sounds is instructed to gain experience in creating new sounds Refer to 
page 1 5 of- the Operation Manual for details. 



Example: Changing the preset tone 3-1 "Synth. Brass" into an exotic "Oriental Brass" sound and storing 
it In internal memory D-8, a 

(1) Select the preset toneB-l ''Synth, Bras5 J , 



r y 



(2) Raise the range one octave. 

(I) Press the OCTAVE key. 

^The display shown on the right will appear on the 

LCD. [This indicates that the octave setting for SYNTH. 

BRASS is currently "RANGE = 0".| 



OCHVl 



* 




OCTfWE 
RfiHGE=+« 

f 



C\lTiQf 



The cursor is the nwfc thai Indicate fhe posl- 
tlon it which ,i vulva can he GhangMt, 



>&* 



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NOTE 



Whenever you press nny key such as VIBRATO, WAVE FORM, ENV, etc., the respective value set for 
the selected tone will he displayed in the same manner as shown for the octave range setting above. 
Pressing these buttons again returns the LCD to the previous display. 



(?) Press the ^ key once. 

"► The value above the cursor changes to "+ 1 " and 

the pitch range is thus shifted up by one octave. 



MTE 



UUP 



VALUE 



hs 







The COMPARE/RECALL Key ) 



When you perform the operation described above in (2)—®, the indicator above the COM- 
PARE/RECALL key will light indicating that a sample sound has been altered, {In our 
example, the pitch range of the tone ''Synth. Brass" has been raised by oriu octave.) if you 
now press the COMPARE/RECALL keyj the indicator will go out and you will be able to 
hear the original (unaltered) sample sound (i.e, in our case the Synth. Brass tone}. Press 
the key to compare ihe sounds before and after alteration. By using (his button and simply 
pressing a key on the keyboard, you can listen to the sound you are altering as well as the 
original sound any time. 

Note: Press the COM PA RE/RECALL key again after comparing an altered sound with 
the original. This will return to the partially altered sound (indicator will light) 
and allow Further modifications, 






■:i| "I 



(3) Change the pitch envelope to achieve a wavering effect during the attack 

: I ' Press the DCO 1 ENV key. 
# The LCD will show the display on the right. 
| The para me Let values for Step 1 of the pitch 

envelope are "'RATE = 99" and "LEVEL = 33". 



The cursor is positioned under the RATE value.] 



® Press the W key to display Step 2 of ihe envelope. 
^Tho LCD will show the display on the right. 




DOWN 



PITCH STEP! *** 



UP 



\: 



LHt STEF 



^ 



92 I 



Cursor 



PITCH STEP2 END 
RRTE*jS8 LEUEL=0Ei 



— i — 

tursfir 



NOTE 



By performing the operations explained in the steps ahove, 
the parameter values for "Synth. Brass" are RATE = 99, 
LEVEL = 33 For Step 1 and RATL = £§, LEVEL = for Step 
2, producing the envelop shown on the right. The "rale" 
parameters indicate the "attack angle'' while the "Level 1 ' 
parameters show the "height" of the envelope for the res pet* 
five steps, The maximum value for each of these parameters Js 
99 wh3le the minimum value is 0. 
-* See page 15 — 19 of the Operation Manual for details. 



First step 



LEVEL = 33 

H=BB 

Second step 




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■ 3^' 



r i- Press the 3R f key to set the value to 50, 

* Each time the ^ key is pressed, Lh^ value will decrease by 1, Keeping this key depressed will cause the 

value Id decrease continuously. II' the vaJue has decreased beyond lhe desired point, simply press the jjfih 

key to increase it again. 




PITCH STEP2 END 
RBTE=5Q LEUEL^Q 



NOTE 



The operation explained [n (J changes the rate (slope) of 
Step 2 from 6S to 50, producing The pitch envelope illustrated 
on the right 



* The wavering effect, which is determined by the angle of 
the slope j will now he stronger due to the gentler slope 
of the envelope (indicated by The shaded section). 



,R = 50 



Btffare alteration 




f Press, the COMPARE/RECALL key in order to compare the altered sound with The previous one. After 
comparison, return to the altered sound by pressing the compare/recall key again. (The indicator will 
light.) 



[4) Change the DETUNE value to add a perfect fifth harmony. 





DETUNE <+) 0CT=a 
H0TE=8fl F'INB=86 



DETUNE <» (XT-e 
HOTELS FIHE=96 



©Press the detune key. 

^The LCD will show lhe display on the right. 

ODPress the B key to move the cursor lo the position below 
the NOTE value. 

&) Press the ^key to change the NOTE value from 00 Id 07. 

NOTE: A perfect fifth is the note seven semitones above the root 
(baste note), 

* Play something on the keyboard to listen to the new tone, a brass sound with an oriental feeling to it. 
(5) Store the sound in MEMORY D-5. 



DETUNE t-K' OCT^S 
N0T.£«B-J FINE=06 



ED Set the PROTECT switch on the back of the synthesizer 
to OFF. 

(£)Keep the WRITE key depressed until the operation 
of step (D Is completed. 

■►The LCD will show the display on the right. 

All indicators in the Programmer section except the 
COMPARE/RECALL indicator will go out. 



PROTECT 

Off Q#l 





♦ 



«®' 



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©Press the D key in tha memory bank. 
The indicator will light. 

G£) Press voice selector key 5. When "OK 1 * appears an 
the LCD, the WRITE key and voice selector key tan 
be refcased, 



ii : 



MEMORY 






The newly created memory timbre can be recalled using the same procedure outline previously. 

The 32 timbres in (he memory hank tan be stored to separately available cassette tjpe or an optional 

RAM cartridge. See " HMURE DATA WRITE/SAVE/LOAD" in the user's manual. 



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CZ-3000 Sound Synthesi 



Block Structure of the CZ-3000 

(as compared to an Analog Synthesizer) 



The fascinating thing about the CZ-3000 is not only its realistic, dtear sound, bul also the simplicity of sound 
creation it offers. The CZ-3GO0 eliminates one of the major drawbacks of previous digital synthesizers, namely 
that it was extremely difficult to llcLullIIv synthssjzp the kind of sound one had in mind. You can now easily 
create any sound you warn: as yau please, The secret behind Ibis ability is thai the CZ-3000 has inherited 
the basic easy-to-understand structure of sound synthesis from the analog Synthesizer. In other words, Lhe 
CZ-3000 combines the superior sound quality of a digital synLhesizer with the easy-to-undcrstand principles 
of sound synthesi offered by analog instruments. 

In [he following, we will explain the block structure of the CZ-3000 while comparing, it to thai of an analog 
synthesizer. 

Note; To those of you who have never used synthesizers before, we strongly recommend reading the appen- 
dix "Synthesizer Sound Seminar" first. 



Analog Synthesizer 



X 



Digital Synthesizer - CZ-300O 



> 



'This is the basic general structure of analog There are two blocks such as the one enclosed by 
synthesizers. Details will differ according to the dotted line, 

make and model. 



vco 

(PlichJ 


4 


I 
VCF 
(Tlmhiuj 


4 


VGA 

[ Vblu m c ) 

J 



t 



t 



J 



LFO 



EG 



* analog sound signals 
*+ analog e on Lrol signal* 



r 



DCO 

{Pitthf 


4 


DCW 
(Timhic[ 


4 


DCA 

fVljIUlTlii) 



T 



T 



DLFO 




DEG 




DEG 




DEG 



* digital sound signals 

■+ digital control signals 



X2 



Looking at the above diagram, it is evident that the CZ-3000 has practically the same block structure as analog 
synthesizers. 

• DCO (Digital Controlled O&cillator) 

- A digital circuit that corresponds to the VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) of an analog synthesizer, 
arid determines the pitch and the baste wave form* of a sound. 

• The CZ-3U&0 offers aboUL 1 times as many basic wave forms as a normal analog synthesizer. 

■ DCW (Digital Controlled Wave) 

A digital circuit thai corresponds to the VCF {Voltage Controlled Filter} of an analog synthesize^ 
and controls the timbre of a sound. 

• DCA (Digital Controlled Amplifier) 

- A digital circuit that corresponds to the VCA (Voltage Controlled Amplifier) of an analog synthesizer, 
and controls the volume o\'a sound. 

• DEG (Digital Envelope Generator) 

- Corresponds to the LG (Lnvelope Generator) of an analog synthesizer, and controls Lhe change of 
pitch, timbre and volume over time according Lo a maximum of 16 parameters. 

m & p www.cosmosynths.userpage.de 



# DLFO (Digital Low Frequency Oscillator) 

A circuit thiit corresponds to the LFQ (Low Frequency Oscillator) of an analog synthesizer, and 
generates low frequency waves for vibrato effects. 

This shows how easy [l Is lo view the various blocks of the CZ -3000 along th* lines of analog synthesizers, 
meaning that it is possible to create totally new sounds without having to learn any new kind of synthesis. 

Note that the CZ-300O offers a dual line systems consisting of the blocks shown above, resulting in the block 
structure shown below. 



Detune and Line Select 



The CZ-30QG has d dual lint? structure (Lme[T| and Lined]}: 



lineQ] 




i imi 7] 



(Sateen the 
llnef*)) 



After sounds have been created on Line QQ and/or gl , pitch differences can be obtained with the Detune 
function and line outputs can be designated with Line Selcci. 

* Detune Determines the pitch difference between Line 3] and Line \2\ . (Note 1) 

The pilch difference can be designated in units of one octave, one semitone or 1/60 
semitone, It is also possible to designate whether ihc pitch is raised {+} or lowered {—), 

• Line Select . . . Determines which lines are outpul or which lines are combined. (N.ote 2) 

[j] ■ Outputs Line Q] only. 

\2\ '■ Outputs Line \2\ only. 

Q]+E; Line|jj is output logether with detuned Lime QH ■ 

[L -•- LT; : Line Q] is output together with detuned Line Q] , 

* HI Eind QL indicate detuned lines. 

Note 1: When 13 +■ 3D is designated with Line Select Line HI is output together with detuned Line ffl (Line 
HI with an altered pitch). In other words, selling a Detune value will detune Line 2 when 1 + I2i 
is designated and Line DTJ when DTI * ITI is designated, 

Note 2: When III or X have buun designated with Line Select, the synlhesizer is 16-note polyphonic. When 
DEI + HI or DTI + El have been designated, tt is £-nate polyphonic. 

I he Detune and Line Select Functions let you create a variety of effects by combining the different sounds 
on each line or detuned and normal-pitch tones for a fatter, spacier sound, or to obtain various naunces, 
For Example, by combining a normaE -pitch string tone with a slightly detuned string tone, you can achieve 
an even more realistic sound. Another interesting example is the combination of an organ tone with key click 
noise for a funky jazz organ sound. As you can see, the Detune and Line Select functions play important parts 
in CZ-300Q sound synthesis. 



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Key Relationship and Operation 



_ 



To get an idea about the relationship among the various keysj first took at the following diagram: 



■---DLFO 


3 


- i 
i 
t 
1 


OCO 1 
(Pitch) 


! 1 








\ ¥ 

\ ■ 

\ i 


■ VIBRATl 

l 


rnnM 




ENV 




DC02 






(Pitch) 


: r 




I < ' 


: 1 


■ L 

■ 

■ _ 


1 




| 


i OCTAVE 




WAVE 
■ ;:.mv 


ENV 



-LINE 1 1 1 - 



DCW1 



; (ti 


mi 


bm) 


- 1 




J 


"KEV 

; FOLLOW 


ENV 



DCW2 
(Timbre) 



;ki v 



^llcw;^ 
-LINE raj 



ENV 



DCA ] 
(Volume) 



i: 



■ FOLLOW £NV 



[Vulurni;) 



□ 



Key env 

FOLLOW tr,v 



V*^+ 



HI 




LINE 
SELECT 



Compare thh diagram with the one on page 16. The PEG for each block is indicated by the ENV (envelope) 

keys for DCO 1 h DCW 1, etc. Also, OCTAVE controls both DCO I and DCO 2. The key layout more or 

less corresponds to the block structure shown in the diagram on pa;;e 16. 

There are 16 keys in all. With the exception of the LINL 5LLLCT key on the extreme right, all other 15 

keys cause the values sot for the respective h locks to be displayed on the LCD when pre-ssed. These 15 keys 

are ej I led parameter keys. 

GZ-30O0 sounct synthesis is accomplished by displaying the values for the blocks you want to alter on the 

LCD by pressing ihe u : -.|v- iKt key and ihen Littering the displayed values with the CURSOR keys ( LH and 

E ), and the VALUE keys ( JSland ^J. 



[ Basic Procedure for Sound Synthesis ) 

* Procedure Tor altering sample sounds. 



rW- 



Select the timbre you want to use as the basis for 

your Sound from among the sample sounds (preset 
and memory voices), 



12" 



Press the respective parameter key to display the 
Values for the block you wish to change on the 
LCD, 



-i 

Operation Example 

. Irr Pirl i L 




(2) -CD 
{3}- ■! 
[4) - CD 



"H> 



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T&- 



Use the CURSOR keys and VALUE keys to 
change the displayed values. 



When you want to alter more than one block, repeat steps '-*" and W 



(a)-© 
(3)- -®® 



vW- 



Select the line(s) you want to output with LINE 
SELECT, 



This operation is nol ex- 
plained in Part 1 since the 
output line is not changed 
in Lhe example. 



is' 



Store the synthesized sound In the internal 
memory or cartridge memory. 



* The settings for RING and NOISE arc performed in I* ~ M 



(5)- CD®®}® 



The notations to the right of the diagram refer to procedures en plained in Part 1: "First, Let's Create Some 
Sounds!" See the respective sections for detailed operational procedures. Refer to the Operation Manual 
for the meanings of the settings for each block. 



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Sound Synthesis Tips 



Sound Synthesis Tips 



(1) Choosing the Waveform 

The waveform is one of the most important factors which determine -a sound. The first step to successful 
sound synthesis is therefore to understand the chaPacj*.ffsttcs of the various wave Forms. 

The following Lable shows I he major characteristics of each wave form preset on the CZ-30DU synthesizers, 
(Select preset tone No. I "Brass Ens T" and switch to the waveforms indicated below.) 



Waveform 

\, Saw-tooth 



2. Square 



3. Pulse 



f\ A. 



4. Double sine 



5. Saw pulse 

run. 



6\ Resonance I 



7. Resonance II 




Characteristic 



A bright, timbre suited to strings and brass sounds. 



A simple timbre suitable for woodwinds such as clarinet and 
oboe. 



A <iharp timbre for funky sounds. 



A shrill, bright timbre. 



A brassy, metallic timbre. 



A funky timbre with characteristics depending on the WAVE 
ENVELOPE setting. 



A funky timbre with characteristics depending on the WAVE 
ENVELOPE setting. 




A lunky timbre wiLh characteristics depending on the WAVE 
ENVELOPE setting, 



Selecting any one of the waveforms 1 to 5 and setting the wave envelope level set to outputs a sine wave. 
This technique is used to output sine waves when necessary, 



* As at ready noted, the DCO waveform setting determines the basic waveform. With the CZ-300D, this 
basic waveform actually varies over time, controlled by the wave envelope (DCW). (With the PD sound 
source, the variation is between a sine wave and the basic wave. See "PD Sound Source und Waveform 
Variation "on page 14). 



•©■ 



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(2) Using the DCO Envelope Generator (Pitch Envelope) 

CD Percussive attack using the pitch envelope 

Setting a fast attack (rise) and decay (drop) time for the 
pitch envelope creates a sound with a percussive attack. 
Note, however, that this percussive attack will not be 
audible if the attack of the DCA envelope is too slow. 



i ,-i 




R.-S9 \--i , = 77 



U-IIQ 



□ft TON] 



'.£ Auto glide effect using the pitch envelope 

First, the pitch envelope is set so that ft rises very quickly 

to a point fust below one octave in Step 1. The Step 1 rale 

of the DCA envelope fs set to about 60 so that the first 

step of the pitch envelope cannot be heard. 

The second step of the pitch envelope is set so that the 

envelope slowly approaches the one octave {L = 6G) pitch 

and then a sustain point ia specified, 

This Setting produce an auto glide effect causing the pitch 

to slowly rise when a key is pressed. 



K.=a L.-E6 




smun 



^ AWP ChVD-OPE 

I 
\ 

I 



h, = iki, , ,-nj, kmi pqimt 



! 



@ Using the pitch envelope to produce a guitar sound with distortion and picking effects 

Causing the pitch to oscillate rapidly within a one-octave 

range produces a distorted guttar sound with picking l, = 66 Lj = eg l =&& L =Gt> 

R, = B5 



effects. 



i -I ri :i i 

ENVELOPE 




R, = 35 



END POINT 



(3] Using the DCW Envelope Generator {Wave Envelope) 

i Wah-wah sound 

Select any of the rEsonance wave forms {I IN). 

By setting the wave envelope as shown below, a wah-wah effect can be achieved. 



■I, Vl 



I , i'! 



I..- t 



U-in 



|.i -H 






T^,. 





\n . * in / 


*»- 


Ml 


\ /,-iP 






L, =■ If 





■in 



EM) 
H3H1 



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* : 1 1 - — 



v PD So und Soy rce an d Waveform Va riat^^ 

The CZ-3O00 features a PD sound source that produces a variety of waves by controlling the speed 
at which a sine wave is. read from ROM. (See User's Manual for details,) in actual practice, the wave 
is altered over Lime betwem the basic waveform and a sfne waveform in accordance wjLh the envelope 
formed with Lhe ECW envelope generator, [Fig, 1 ) 

in* ',. /\ , rx 



WAVEFORM 1 

bibb. 



■< -, I Irl .11 




WAVEFORM 7 (RESONANCE II) 



f* a, 



Ki,orr 







'-+ 


4 / 




1 






\> « 


A N 




vav^jy — 


- r .it. 




H*yflfF ^ t ^'" 



■Z> Fixed timbre organ 

As can bo seen in the figure, fixing the wave envelope at a constant level produces a specific 
waveform ir regard less of li m e ( I i ke a n orga n ) . 



J^MLjJMIhu 



ZlikAL 



]£k.- 



hi 



SUSTAIN PqthT 



■i L,=Sfl 



in, *» 

I / 



1, Oft L, Oft EhD POINJ 



■IT 

si 



(4) Using the DCA Envelope Generator [Amp Envelope) 
Echo effect 



kaf SU5TAH 

(jn l-i-i-jl 



^'-"'- U-M 




A double echo effect can be obtained when a key is 
released. 



1^-flQ 



EMTJ 

i-iii-ji 



i© 



»i ?.» 



www.cosmosynths.userpage.de 



® Piano-like envelope with sudden decay 

ff a key is released before the Sustain Point is reached, the envelope jumps to the step where the End Point 
is designated. This can be achieved by setting, the Sustain Point in a step where the decay is complete (level 
= 00) and entering a relatively fast rate for the following siep, where the Lnd Point is. set. 
With this kind of Envelope, the sound will expand as long as the key is pressed and decay suddenly when 
it is. released. 







KV: 
POhT 



CD Brass wind instruments with a longuing effect 

Setting the attack of the envelope as shown below produces the kind of Longuing effecL typical of brass wind 

instruments. 



Ii-B 

L.-id 



L."|B 




(5) Using key follow 

Besides altering the timbre and volume over time in DCW and DCA, key follow aEso produces change in the 
limbrc in accordance with the pitch of the keyboard key. In [he case of a piano timbre, for example, the 
higher the pitch, the rounder the timbre and the faster the decay. 

I ? DCW Key Follow 

The higher the pitch the lower the Timbre modulation factor. A sine wave is approached, so a round timbre 
is gradu nlLy formed. The higher the range value, the greater the effect. 

®DCA Key Follow 

The higher the pitch, the larger each step rate (slope) in the amp enveiope r The enveloped is reduced over time, 
so decay is faster. The higher the rangt value, the greater the effect. This setting is very effective in producing 
the plucked sLring el feet of the guitar and piano. 



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■ l.i" 



(6) Effective Use of the Detune Function 

Select Electric Piano B»3 and set the Detune parameters as follows. 



+/~ 


Octave Note 


Fine 


Effect 


— 


7 


00 


00 


Fatter sound. 


— 


1 


00 


00 


Fatter sound. 


-~ + 





00 


01-07 


Ensemble. Particularly effective in combination with Line Select 
setting Q] + Q3 . 


+ 


1 


00 


00^07 


Falter sound. Accentuates harmonic one octave above baste 
pitch. 


+ 


1 


07 


00 


Accentuates third harmonic. Well suited to brass and organ 
sounds. 


+ 


7 


00 


00^07 


Accentuates harmonics two octaves above basic pilch. Suited 
to electric piano sounds and electric organ sounds. 


+ 


2 


03 


48 


Acce n t ua te s fl f th harmon i c, (S ou nd of h 1 til n g wood ) 


♦ 


2 


09 


36 


Accentuates sixth harmonic. 


+ 


3 


00 


00 


Accentuates seventh harmonic. 


+ 

+ 


3 


00 


00 


Accentuates harmonic thr-uu octaves above basic picth. 


3 


02 00 


Accentuates ninth harmonic. 


+ 


3 


03 


4S 


Accentuates tenth harmonic. 


+ 


3 


05 


30 


Accentuates eleventh harmonic. 


+ 


3 


07 


00 


Accentuates twelfth harmonic. [Sound of hitting glass) 


+ 


3 


08 


24 


Accentuates thirteenth harmonic. 


+ 


3 


09 


ir; 


Accentuates fourteenth harmonic. 


+ 


3 


10 


54 


Accentuates fifteenth harmonic. {Metallic sound] 



Note: The values for the FINE setting are included as examples and do not have to be followed precisely. 



(7) Modulation 

(D Ring Modulation 

Turning ring modulation ON while the line select is set to Q] + QH {or 3] + [2 ), multiplies line QQ by line 
E (or El), and a timbre modulated by line QD (or EH) fs LfNE m. 
produced. The ring modulated tone includes the pitch of 
line Q] and pitches not included in line S3 (or 53 } (non- 
integral multiples) for a metallic sound, such as belL 



LINE Pf) 
or 

LINE 23 



>®- 



■?' Noise Modulation 

I Liming noise modulation ON while the line select is set ro Q] + 03 (or [D + Q3 ) produces a timbre in which 
ft] (or ) is modulated by noise. This is effective for pro- 
ducing wind or wave effects. 



'<[*■ 



LINEH]- 
or 

LINES 

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Noise 

modulation 

circuit 



1 
N0I5E 



"The Synthesizer Sound Seminar" 



Sound 



Every day, we hear a great variety of sounds. Voices., the noise of car engines, doors opening and dosing, 

footstep^ rain ... and music. In other words, we live our lives surrounded by sound. We can't see sound, 

5.0 how can we describe it? 

Physics tells us that "'Sound is vibration". Taking the sound of a bull as an example we will try to pursue 

the basics of sound as it Is produced and as it Is heard. 

When kinetic (motive) energy fa applied to a bell with a bill hammer as shown in figure 1, a "deformation" 

of the hell occurs causing energy to work trying to restore the hell to its original slate. Aperiodic repel ition 

oT deformation and restoration commences. This is called vibration, 

This vibration causes pressure changes In the air. These are called compressional waves. They arc similar 

to the ripples thai occurs when a stone is thrown into water, 

These cam preagonal waves are transmitted to the human car where they cause the eardrum to vibrate. Trto&e 

vibrations, are picked up by nerves so we hear them as "sound". IF the vibrating body differs, so will the 

vibrations, meaning thaL we also hear a different kind of sound. Outer space, where there is no air, is a worJd 

altogether without sound- 




(fiS-1) 



(Eardrum), 



VttW»t tonal 
micr^y All 

))))>)») W)))))))))))))r: 

Co nip region ul waves 



(Remember) 



Sound is vibration of the air. 



'ti Wave Forms 



Seeing Sounds With Our Ey«s 



As explained above, sounds cannot actually be seen since they are vibrations of the air. However, you will 
often hear expressions such as "the wave form is diflerent" or "this ts at most a pure sine wave" concerning 
sounds. What is meant by "sound waves"? 



Condensed 

Pressure e h uns; eg ( h J(fh a t m osp ne r jt pre ssurc ] +{& 



))))) ) ))))))) ) ))))))))) 

dense Lknsc ■ :■ i I'-c 

noivdtnse no n -de rise 



T 






Rarefied 

(low atmos.phei[c *+ f ~ 1 cycle 

presuufaj 




•-Time 



Let's consider the mechanism of a microphone which is used as a means for picking up sound. A microphone 
converts sound into electrical signals which can be then transmitted to an amplifier and speakers. As shown 
in the illustration, Lhesc electrical signals are simple conversions of the vibrations of the air [the changes 
in atmospheric pressure) into electrical © and © , When these changes are presented graphically, they 
can be interpreted as "wavE and displays then as waveforms on a television screen. If we use this kind of a 
device., we can see sounds with our own eyes. 

What we see aru "waveforms 11 . These waveforms differ greatly according to the sound and have various charac- 
teristics. These points will be explained later on in the Appendix. 



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..1*. 



ember ) 



IF sounds arc converted into ejectrical signals, they can 
be made visible as waveforms. 




firtN^ 




OsclllDSPpU 



3 Three Basic Elements of Sound 



We now know that so unci is vibration and that these can be seen by the eye as waveforms, Bui we have been 
talking about "sound" in general up la now without taking into consideration that there are high sounds 
and low sounds, Eoud sounds and quiet sounds, mellow sounds ajid sharp sounds . . . that is to say a great 
variety of sounds which we perceive very differently. In general, sounds can be classified according to Jr pitch", 
"volume 1 ' and "tone quality", which are called the "three basic elements or sound". In other words, sounds 
are determined by these three basic elements. 



1 Rem ember ) 



The "three basic elements of sound" are "pitch" "volume" and "tone quality", 



We can now have a look at how these three basic elements are connected with the various wave forms. 



& Pitch 



— 



The "first basic elemenl of sound"* 



When you hit the keys of a piano, you will notice that the sounds get higher the further to the right a key 
is located and lower the further to the left a key is located. This "altitude" of a sound is called "pitch", 
When sounds with difFering pitches are compared on an oscilloscope, the numher or waves per time unit 
differ. The higher a sound, the larger the number of waves; the lower a sound the smaller the number of 
waves. 




-* Law sounds 

jlow rcghLcr) 

haaaaaI 



Few waves 



Higji sounds — 
I high regljtfrrj 




Many waves 



'®' 



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The numtHjr or waves is actually the number of Lhe vibrations causing the sound, For example, 3f we are 
listening to a violin, il would bo the number of vibrations of the btringq within a certain period of lime. The 
higher the sound the larger the number of vibrations per timi: unit; the lower the sound the smaller the num- 
ber. The number of vibrations wiLhin the- space of one second is generally called the frequency and expressed 
in units called Hz (Hertz). 100 Hz indicates thai vibrations occur at the frequency of 100 times per second. 
The larger the number of Herta h the higher the sound, AEso note thai doubling the frequency of 3 sound 
will raise it by one octave, so we can say thai frequency and pitch arc related logarithmically. 
The range of frequencies thai can be heard by the human ear depends on the individual but is generally con^ 
sid ere d to be in the approximate range qf 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. 



W?Hz ^ 8$^ 



ZEE 



■fi* — 



-22 1 Hz 



(Remember ) 



[he pitch ol a sound depends on the number of waves per time unit (the vibration Iruquency) 
and becomes higher as the frequency increases. 



Jy Sound Volume 



The "second basic element of sound" 



If you hit a piano key forcefully, the sound will be loud If you hit it softly, the sound will be soft When 
viewed on an oscilloscope, this change in sound volume can be seen as a difference in the height of the 
waves. The height of the waves is called lhe[r amplitude. The larger the amplitude the louder the sound. 



Forcefully ^fe 




o 




Softly i^ 

[ W^es are hljjh. ^*~^ c$ ^AAAAAAAjt W:,vcwrfl |DW - 



iH 



Remember j- 



The sound volume is determined by the amplitude (height of a wave) - the larger the amplitude 
the larger (louder) Lhe volume. 



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yy Tone Color or Timbre 



The "third basic elemenl of sound" 



Even if you play a flute and a clarinet with the same pitch and about the same volume, you will not hear 
the same sound. That is because there is still one more distinguishing factor for sounds besides pitch and 
volume, known as "timhre 1 '. 



(rf^ 31 - 



F I Lite 



i=> 





^> 



f \ 

I | — — 

I L 

V / 



Clarinet 



When sounds with different timbres are viewed on the oscilloscope, it can be seen that the waveforms them- 
selves differ, tt Is this difference in waveform Lhat causes the difference in timbre. Generally speakingj rounded 
waveforms result, in softer timbres, while "pointed 11 waveforms result in hard,, brilliant timbres, Very basically, 
waveforms can be divided into the three types shown in the diagram below sine waves, saw-tooth waves 
and square waves. 



Wave form 



me 



Timbre 



Instruments 
Flute, whistle 
Violin, trumpet 
Clarinet oboe 

The CZ- 50QO offers 8 basic waveforms. However, In order to understand the functioning of timbres as well 
as basic sound creation with the synthesizer, it is very Important to first understand the throe waveforms 
shown above. 




Sine wave 


Soft 


Saw-tooth wave 


Bright 


Square wave 


Simpte 



i Remember ) 



The timbre depends on the Form of the wave. There are three basic waveforms - sine wave, saw-tooth 
wave and square wave. 



"ilffl- 



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ll Basic Waves and Harmonics^Shaping the Timbre 

Now ydu would probably like to know how you can determine Lhe shape of a wave {= timbre) En order to 
create the kind of sound you want. Have a look at the diagram on the lower left first. Ji ill u straits ihc process 
of combining two sine waves To form a saw-loo th wave. B is. Lhu basic sine wave white C has iwice the fre- 
quency of B (it is thus one octave higher in pitch) and only half its amplitude (volume). When B and C are 
combined, the result is die waveform A, A is still not a perfect saw-tuoih wave, but it will infinitely approach 
a perfect saw-tooth shape If sine waves with triple (3s), quadruple (4x), quintuple {5x} etc. frequencies arc 
added. If, on the other hand, only sine waves with odd numbered frequency multiples are added, the basic 
sine wave will gradually approach a square wave. 

fn this manner, any waveform can be created by adding a number oF sine waves to a basic sine wave. Waves 
such as C with frequencies mat are integral multiples of the frequency of the basic wave (in our ca^e B) are 
called hnrmonics. fn other words, the waveform and thus the limbre are determined by the kind of harmonics 
added to the basic sine wave. Put differently, almost all sounds with their different timbres that reach our 
ears include a variety of d Efferent harmonics, and ft is these harmonics which are responsible for the count- 
less characteristic timbres. 



A = B+C 



lal = Ibl - |c| 




■ Saw-TootJl wave 

AAA 



■ Square wave 



Harmonic 
com pone n Li 



■ ■ 



1 1 



1 1 

Harmonic t 
uomponents j>j 

a.i 
n 



+ 1 



rnv.j*;.^ 



Hl*.|l4J7lhP III 



■•• 



JLJ 



i. 



'Graphs such us the ones above which show the h ar- 
mor I c components of a wav* form arc pa Hud "har- 
monic, spectrum*". 



NOTES 



■ Music and noise 

Depending on its main kind of vibrations, sound is divided into "musical" and "noise". Sounds with 
regular vibrations (i.e. sounds in which components other than harmonies are very few) are considered 
to be musical, while sounds caused by complicated irregular vibrations (i.e. sounds with many compo- 
nents that n re not harmonics) whose pitch can therefore not be measured are noise. 
Most of the sounds used: in music are of course musical sounds, but various kinds ol noise such as that 
produced by percussion instruments are also used to high ten the musical effect. 



* Pure Tones 

Sounds which have no other components such as harmonics at all and consist of only one simple fre- 
quency arc called pure tone. The wave form of a pure tone is always a perfect sine wave. The limbre 
of a tuning fork or the telephone time tone are almost pure tones (perfect sine waves) j but a truly 
pure tone docs not exist in the natural world. Pure tones, therefore, can only be created artificially 
(e.g. electronically). 



I — (Jtgme mbeTT ) 



Frequencies which are integral multiples of a basic wave with a certain frequency are called har- 
monics. 
The timbre (waveform) is determined by the harmonic components. 



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'®« 



£[} Envelopes 



Olher Factors Determining a Sound 

Besides the three basic elements of sound already explained, pitch, sound volume and timbre, there is another 
important factor which determines a sound. This is the variation of the sound over time, Mary precisely, 
it is the variation of each ol the thru-u dements over time from the beginning of the sound up Lo the point 
in time where it disappears, completely. If a violin is played with a bow, for inslancCj the sound volume usually 
increases gradually while the timbre and pitch ateo change slightly. These change* over time are what deter- 
mines the characteristic timbre of a violin. On the ether hand, if the sound of a piano were lo continue with- 
out decaying, it would be very difficult to distinguish It from the the sound of a flute. These variations, over 
time are called envelopes. Envelopes expressed graphically such as those in the diagrams below are called 
envelope curves. 

Envelope Curves of Various Instruments [Sound Volume) 



V<hinm: 




Violin 
I 



Piano 



Volunnu 



I mi.: 




Volume 



Time 




I'lulr 



Time 



NOTE 



The change of volume over time can also he cal led an envelope. 



( R.emembejr_) 



The changes over time oT pitch, volume and timbre are called envelopes. Envelopes are among the 
most important factors determining a sound. 



'£) Basic Principles of Analog Synthesizer Structure 



When people talk about synthesizers, you will often hear expressions such as VCO and VCF, Many who 
have heard such difficult words will therefore Find it difficult to approach synthesizers, relieving they are 
too complicated. Actually, though, synthesisers are not that difficult to understand at all, 
Analog synthesizers in general consist of various blocks which correspond to the three ma|or elements of 
sound and the envelopes explained above. 

* VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) 

This circuit corresponds Lo determines the pitch of a sound by controlling voltage. This block is also used 1 
to create basic waveforms such as saw-tooth waves or square waves, 

• VCF (Voltage Controlled Filter) 

This circuit alters the timbre by accentuating or filtering out certain harmonics of the waveforms created 
by the VCO, The VCF mtght be called the most important part oj an analog synthesizer. 



>W. 



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• VGA [Voltage Control fed Amplifier) 

This circuit controls the volume of the sound created by the VCO and VCF, 



Determines the 
pitch of thfl bnund. 



Determines 
Lhu timbre. 



vco 



mm 



Keyboard 



I GATE 



LFO 






OsclltatOi \Jit4 for modulation 



VCF 



.Av 



* EG 



DL'icrmincs the volume 
ef the sound. 

(Output} 



VGA 



DeierrnlncB the envelope curve uf the waves 



r 1 



Sound '. i ' 

Control signal! 
tiirtP signal 



• EG (Envelope Generator] 

Control!* Lhe change over time of the volume,, timbre etc.; in other words the envelopes. The biaisic envelope 
curve consist!! ol" Lhu lour elements shown in the diagram below which can be controlled independently. 
The EG bEock is thus capable of creating a great variety of curves. 




Key Dn 



Time 



* LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator) 

As this term indicates, the LFO Is an oscillator operating at low frequencies. It can be used to control various 
other blocks to create such effects as vibrato. 



( Remember ) 

The basic structure and functions of an analog, synthesizer: 

• VCO: Determines pitch (basic waveform) • 

• VCF: Creates the timbre * 

• VCA: Determines sound volume 



EG: 
LFO; 



Determines the envelope 
Used for various effects 



Note 



The above is meant only as a general idea of how an analog synthesizer works, Of course^ there are 
considerable differences according to the manufacturer and model. 



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£11, 



0® Structure of the CZ-3000 



While the CZ-3000 is a digital synthesizer, it is as easy to understand as any analog synthesizer since it con- 
sists of blocks that correspond closely to those making up an analog synthesizer. Anybody who knows Mil- 
basics concerning analog synthesis will therefore find it very easy to create any soundb they want with the 
CZ-300O r Even totjl beginners wilt he ante to enfoy sound synthesis almost immediately by simply mastering 
the contents of this "Suund Synthesis Seminar". 



p 


PCO 
t?Tlfch) 


4 


paw 

(Timbrel 


4 


13CA 

1 Voturnc! 


1 




t 




t 




T 


DLFO 




Dl£G 




DEG 




DEG 



<An;ilaj{; SynilKiS,Ezer> 


<CZ*3QCO> 


vco 


i-^ 


DCO 


VCF 


w 


DCW 


VGA 


#— ► 


DCA 


E G 


*-► 


DEG 


LFO 


4— t 


DLFO 



For more details on thi> structure of the CZ-3000, see Part X "CZ-3000 Sound Synthesis" (page (> ). 



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>££. 




... 









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J06A SA&fti Printed in Jtipun